“Soha nem láttam még ennyi embert a meccsen!” Mi teszi ezt a mondatot olyan erőteljessé? A struktúra: a mondat elején megjelenő tagadás. Az angol nyelv egy kicsit más: a szavak sorrendje kódolva van. A tagadás az alany után jön. Vagy mégsem?

Létezik az angolban olyan szerkezet, ami ki tudja emelni a tagadó gondolatot? Létezik igen. Haladó angol nyelvtan következik, de egyszerű példákkal és magyarázattal. Hajrá, tanulj igazán magas szintű nyelvtant, akár kezdőként is.

Íme a videó: 


A videó leirata: 


Negative (inverted) structures 1

Hiya! Let’s examine today how negative structures work. Here we go.

I have never seen so many cars in the city.

‘Never’ is a negative word, right? And sometimes we want to emphasise it, so we put it at the beginning:

Never have I seen so many cars in the city.
As a child, I never ate in restaurants. As a child, never did I eat in restaurants.

Whoa, whoa, whoa! Hold on! Wait a sec! What’s going on here? ‘Never have I …’ and ‘never did I…’? What’re we talking about, mate? Let me explain:

If you open the sentence with a negative word, you have to continue in an inverted form. That looks like a question which is why we say: ‘never have I…’, ‘never did I …’, ’never will I…’ etc.

Let’s check out another negative idea:

I didn’t see a film last week.

Let’s open with the word ‘not’:

Not one film did I see last week.
Not one textbook will I open during the holidays.
Not one apple has he ever tasted.

Here is another one:

I didn’t know about my test results until I phoned my mentor.

Let’s begin with ‘not until’:

Not until I asked my mentor did I know my test results.
Not until I see him will I form an opinion about him.
Not until 2012 did my brother return from abroad etc.

Expressions that contain the word ‘no’ also behave like this:

Under no circumstances are you allowed to enter the area.
In no way will I share my room with him.

Now, why would you use this structure? Let’s do a simple experiment (or test, if you like). Which of the two sentences do you find more powerful?

I have never seen so many fans at a football match.


Never have I seen so many fans at a football match.

The second one definitely sounds more powerful. Why is that? Because a negative word is always strong; also, the opening word in a sentence shows importance. So, if you begin a sentence with a negative word, it’s a very powerful opening.

But be careful. Use the structure sparingly—only if you really want to emphasise the negative idea. It shows very strong opinions or feelings. It would simply sound crazy to say: ‘not one apple did I find at the greengrocer’s’ :) unless you’re really mad at the situation: ‘Not one apple did I find at the greengrocer’s! This is ridiculous!’

And with that said, we’re gonna end our mini-lesson there. Now go, practise. See you soon.